A high-throughput solid-phase microextraction and post-loop mixing large volume injection method for water samples
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Chromatography A. 2018, 1531 32-38. 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.051
This article presents a novel approach for the analysis of 13 drugs in wastewater for use in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) studies. Sample preparation remains one of the principal bottlenecks in modern high-throughput analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed methodology is based on the micro-extraction of small volumes (1 ml) of wastewater using a HLB 96-well microplate and both large volume injection (LVI) and post-loop mixing injection (PLM). With this configuration, the limits of quantification (LOQ) were below the reported environmental concentrations of the target compounds in wastewater. Furthermore, both the complexity of collecting, transporting and storing the wastewater sample, sample preparation time, cost and amount of solvent used are all diminished, enhancing the suitability of this methodology for future WBE studies. A new workflow is also proposed in order to create a virtual specimen library bank for WBE by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The method was validated and the limits of quantification were between 0.2 and 6.3 ng L−1. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for a standard mixture at 200 ng L−1 (n = 6) was between 3.4 and 14.4% while the recoveries for the 13 drug target residues (DTR) were between 92 and 110%. The developed and validated method was finally successfully applied to 10 wastewater samples collected from Oslo, Norway.
Embargo until 22 Nov 2019