The zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for nanotoxicity assessment: from morphological to molecular approach
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionEnvironmental Pollution (1987). 2019, 252, 1841-1853. 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.100
Nanotechnology and use of nanomaterials (NMs) improve life quality, economic growth and environmental health. However, the increasing production and use of NMs in commercial products has led to concerns about their potential toxicity on human and environment health, as well as its toxicological classification and regulation. In this context, there is an urgent need to standardize and validate procedures for nanotoxicity testing. Since the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) has been indicated as a suitable approach for the toxicity assessment of traditional and emergent pollutants, the aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of NMs on zebrafish. In addition, morphological changes in zebrafish embryos induced by NMs were classified in four reaction models, allowing classification of the mode of action and toxicity of different types of NM. Revised data showed that the interaction and bioaccumulation of NMs on zebrafish embryos were associated to several toxic effects, while the detoxification process was limited. In general, NMs induced delayed hatching, circulatory changes, pigmentation and tegumentary alterations, musculoskeletal disorders and yolk sac alterations on zebrafish embryos. Recommendations for nanotoxicological tests are given, including guidance for future research. This review reinforces the use of the ZET as a suitable approach to assess the health risks of NM exposure.
Embargo until 28 June 2021